Gods, Goddesses & Other Beings


Norse Gods & Goddesses

General List of the Norse Gods, Goddesses & Other Supernatural Beings: Their Lore, Powers & Influence

The Scandinavian Folklore consists of a huge variety of creatures, good or evil, which have frightened people for centuries. They were often meant to scare children, but even today they are essential and important to the modern northern society.

Folklore had been forgotten for a bit because of the coming of Christianity. It was a time when people feared nature, because we were becoming more industrialized. The forests, the mountains, and the sea – it all seemed strange, dark and magical, and because of that, we are now left with evil spirits and monsters who used to represent our own way of seeing nature.

32431262.jpgPower lies in strength and wit in the legends of Scandinavia. Immense giants and great men challenged the Gods to prove their worth and win the hand of a beautiful woman. The celestial animals keep watch and support the world in the cosmic tree Yggdrasil that holds all the nine worlds. Dwarves live underground forging magical items, and beasts lie dormant in the underworlds waiting until Ragnarok to partake in the final battle.


Aegir (Ægir, Eger) Ale-brewer of the Vanir: King of the Sea. Son of the giant, Fornjótr, and brother of Logi (fire) and Kári (wind). He is a jotunn, (giant) and a nature spirit. Married to Ran, they had nine daughters (undines), each characterizing some aspect of ocean waves. Using a large cauldron given by Thor, he and his daughters brew ale.

While the relationship between the Aesir Gods and the giants is ambivalent at best, and often marked by considerable strife, Aegir and Ran enjoy an overwhelmingly friendly relationship with the Gods. The Gods are apparently regular guests at Aegir’s magnificent feasts.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Laguz, Naudiz
     Color:
sea-blue, sea-green, turquoise
     Day: Thursday
     Incense: cedar, rose
     Altar: Upon cloth colored like the sea place shells, nets, figures of fish, sea floats
     Offerings: singing, blood given to the ocean, aid those who clean the seas.
     Plant: oak, polybody (a leathery fern), rose
     Rulership: brewing, control of winds & waves, gold, prosperity, sailors, sunken treasure

     Stone: coral, turquoise, amethyst
     Pronunciation: 'Ah-jeer' (Aegir)
     Symbol: dolphin, whale, water


Aesir Gods and Goddesses, is the main tribe of deities. The Goddesses of the Aesir are known as the Asynjur - although the term Aesir is used as the general name for all of the Gods and Goddesses. They live in the celestial fortress Asgard and maintain the order of the cosmos.

Among them are: Odin, the wisest and most magically powerful of the Gods; Thor, the fiery-tempered defender of Asgard; Loki, the cunning trickster; the youthful and universally popular Baldur; the loving sorceress Frigg; Heimdall, the ever-vigilant watchman; Tyr, the upholder of law and justice; Idunn, the keeper of the apples of perpetual youth; Bragi, the court poet, and more.


Alf is another name for the Elves in Norse mythology, sometimes male ancestral spirits. There are two types of Elves, the light Elves (Liosalfar) and dark Elves (Svartalfar). Both were born from the creation Giant Ymir. The light Elves have skin as light as the sun, are tall beautiful and have long hair. They live in a realm called Alfheim which is situated just above the earth but below the heavens.


Ancestor is any person from whom one is descended.  The is a parent or the parent of an ancestor (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).  Around the world and across the centuries, numerous cultures have formed traditions to remember and honor family ancestors.  The connection between the living and the dead was maintained through rituals connected to the burial place like sacrifice of objects, food and drink. In this we also honor, respect and pay homage to our Ancestors going all the way back to the Gods and Goddesses of our Folk themselves, those we are descended from. 

Correspondences:
     Color: black and grey
     Altar: spread a black cloth, and lay it with photographs, paintings, and other depictions of our ancestors - add also symbols of their old tools, and statues of ancestral deities, a bowl of seeds for the future garden, pots of soil, a pitcher of water, and many candles of black and white and grey
     Offerings: things they would have liked to eat, drink, smoke, or smell, tend a cemetery          and clean up the graves


Angrboda is the Giantess of Norse mythology that was the mother of the great Midgard Serpent and the wolf Fenrir. Her name means ‘The One Who Brings Grief’ or it means ‘She Who Gives Sorrow’.  In mythological primary sources, she is generally only known through her marriage to Loki, and the fact that she is the mother of several of his children. The Gods abducted these monstrous children from her hall once they learned of how dangerous they were.

Correspondences:
     Color: Black

     Element: Fire
     Altar: on a black cloth set a vase of bare oak branches with the dried leaves attached if possible, three lit red candles, a horn of mead, a wooden heart burned to ashes, and an iron knife.
     Offerings: ashes smeared on the face, a promise to see ugliness with new eyes.


Arvak is one of the two horses that pulled the sun across the sky in Norse mythology. Arvaks name means 'Awake early'. Arvak has a magical rune on the back of its ear that was written by Odin. The other horse is Alsvid who rides with him. Together they pull the chariot of sun across the sky led by the sun maiden Sol. Both horses are mentioned in the Grimnismal part of the Poetic Edda written by Snorri Sturlusson.


Ask and Embla, (Pronunciations: 'Aye-sk', 'Ehm-blah')the first two humans to be created and the archetypes of masculinity and femininity. After the Aesir Gods created the cosmos, they fashioned Ask and Embla from two tree trunks that had washed up onto the beach of the landmass the Gods had recently raised out of the primordial waters. They became the father and mother of the entire human species.


Audhumla (Pronunciation: 'Owd-hoom-lah') the Great Cow. Nourisher. Primal shaping force of the universe. Audhumla is the primeval cosmic cow who came into existence at the beginning of time through shaping of the melted Ginnungagap ice. She lived off the Niflheim ice, licking pieces of salt and hoar frost. The frost giant Ymir lived off of her milk. While licking the original Ginnungagap Ice, Audhumla formed the shape of a man which became Buri, who later fathered Bor, and the grandfather of Odin, Vili and Ve.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Hagalaz, Uruz
     Color: brown, green
     Day: Monday
     Incense: jasmine, juniper, lotus
     Plant: birch, fir, hawthorn, mugwort, rose, willow
     Rulership: child-rearing, domestic crafts, motherhood
     Stone: copper, quartz crystal, topaz
     Symbol: cow


Austri (east) is one of four Dwarves in Scandinavian myth. He helps support the dome of the sky which was the skull from the primordial Giant Ymir. He is helped with his brothers Westri, Nordi and Sudri. Each Dwarf is located in one of the four cardinal directions.


Baldur (Baldr, Bealdor, Balþraz), of the Aesir: The Bright One. His name means “Shining Day.” Odin's second son, he is the God of Love, Light, Beauty, Loyalty, Innocence, and Rebirth. He is sacrificed at Midsummer by the dart of the mistletoe, and is reborn at Yule. He is married to the Goddess of Joy, Nanna, and is father to Forseti. He was slain by his blind brother Hodur whose hand was guided by the evil Loki, and will return after Ragnarok.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Fehu, Raidho,
Sowilo
     Color: gold, white
     Day: Sunday
     Altar: upon a gold and white cloth lay a long row of white candles, incense of cedar and       bay, an amber stone with the
rune Sowilo upon it, and a horn of mead - a black cloth should be laid nearby.
     Offerings: sacrifice something beautiful in a way that gives benefit to others
     Incense: cinnamon, frankincense
     Plant: ash, chamomile, marigold, St. Johnswort
     Rulership: advice, beauty, gentleness, harmony, reconciliation, reincarnation

     Stone: gold, goldstone
     Pronunciation: 'Baul-dur' (Baldr)
     Symbol: the Sun, air


Beli is a Frost Giant of Norse myth and the brother of the Giantess Gerthr. He ended up fighting the God Freyr. Freyr was wanting to court with Gerdr. He came round to see her and entered her home without a weapon to show that he came in peace. Eventually a quarrel erupted that turned into a bitter fight. Freyr ripped the antlers of a dead deer's head and used it as a weapon against Beli. In the ensuing fight Freyr defeated the Frost Giant Beli and was rewarded the title ‘Beli’s Killer’. The Dwarf Harr claimed that Freyr could have killed Beli with just his bare hands.


Bestia is the daughter of the primordial Frost Giant Ymir and Mimir. She was married to a Giant called Bor who was the son of Buri the first Giant to emerge from the melted iced of the Audumla cow. She and Bor had three sons who became the Aesir Gods. They were Odin, Ve and Vili. Later these three sons slew Ymir.


Birds play prominent and diverse roles in folklore, religion, and popular culture. In religion, birds may serve as either messengers, attendants or leaders for a deity. As in the case of Hugin and Munin, two common ravens who whispered news into the ears of the Norse God Odin. In some myths, humans and other beings acquire the ability to fly like birds. Such supernatural flight, like many mythological powers, can be either good or evil. Norse tales told that the Goddess Freya's feather cloak enabled the wearer to fly. And a Golden Eagle sits atop Yggdrasil watching the universe.


Borr (Pronunciation: 'Boor' Bor) is one of the ancient Giants of Norse myth that is the grandson to the great Ymir and the husband of Bestla. No mother of Borr was ever mentioned, and it is not clear how he was actually conceived.  His sons were the Aesir Gods Odin, Ve and Vili.


Bragi (Brage), of the Aesir: The bard of the Gods and the God of Eloquence, Poetry and Wisdom. He is a son of Odin and Frigg, and husband to Idunn. Bragi is the God of poets and the patron of all skaldi (poets) in Norse culture. He is renowned for wisdom, and most of all for fluency of speech and skill with words. He is said to bring inspiration to poets and writers. The Norse word for poetry is bragr. It is said that runes were carved on the tongue of Bragi.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ansuz, Gebo, Mannaz, Othala
     Day: Wednesday
     Color: orange, multi-colored
     Incense: sandalwood, storax
     Plant: beech, fern, lily of the valley
     Rulership: arts, music, poetry, song

     Stone: agate, carnelian
     Pronunciation: 'Bray-gee' (Bragi)
     Symbol: harp, book, poetry


Brownie is a legendary creature popular in folklore around Scotland and England. In folklore, a brownie resembles the hob, similar to a hobgoblin. Brownies are said to inhabit houses and aid in tasks around the house. However, they do not like to be seen and will only work at night, traditionally in exchange for small gifts of food. Failing to reward the brownie for his service, would result in either the brownie leaving the household or at worse, mischievously causing havoc in the house, such as breaking dishes, spoiling milk, and chasing away cattle or other animals from the property.


Buri (Pronunciation: 'Boor-ee') is one of the first Giants to emerge from the melted ice of the Audumla cow according to Norse belief. He had a son named Bor who married to a Giantess named Bestia. He had three grandchildren by them. It was these grandchildren that became and started the pantheon of the Aesir Gods.


Changeling is a creature found in folklore and folk religion. It is typically described as being the offspring of a fairy, troll, elf or other legendary creature that has been secretly left in the place of a human child. Sometimes the term is also used to refer to the child who was taken. Since most beings from Scandinavian folklore are said to be afraid of iron, Scandinavian parents often placed an iron item such as a pair of scissors or a knife on top of an unbaptized infant's cradle.


Disir (Pronunciation: 'Dee-seer') is ancestral female spirits to whom Winter Nights and Disting are holy.  They watch over the family in general but more particularly the person who will carry on the line.  The Disirs work under Freya.  The Valkyries are Disir.

They were afforded worship in ancient times and in the Ynglinga Saga a feast held in their honor is described. The Disir often appear to members of their families to help or punish and are said to appear in dreams. The Idesa or Disir of one's family may be called upon in some spell workings particularly those dealing with family matters. They are helpful with childbirth and also attend deaths.

Correspondences:
     
Color: grey
     
Altar: upon cloth place the last sheaf of grain harvested for the year, and the last vegetables pulled from the ground - also mead
     Offerings: food to the Ancestors, divination


Dragon is enormous serpents, armored with impenetrable scales and equipped with one of two pairs of legs and a set of bat-like wings, wedge-shaped heads and long, poisonous fangs. Some sported twin horns, enormous claws and a forked or barbed tail. Welsh dragons were often red, German were white, others came in black, yellow, green, purple, or blue.


Draugr (Pronunciation: 'Drow-ger') an undead creature hell bent on revenge from Norse mythology. The name means ‘Ghost’ in old Norse language. The Draugr wandered about the countryside in search for its former enemies to exact revenge. They lived in the body of their former life and dwelled amongst the graveyards. They also lived in tomb-like barrows. If anyone built a house nearby the Draugr would haunt the place and torment those that lived there. 


Dvalin is the name of one of four graceful stags that lived in the enchanted world of the Yggdrasil tree. They lived in the high branches and spent their time peacefully feeding on the ever fresh and nutritious leaves of Yggdrasil. By standing on their back legs, Dvalin and the other stags could just about reach the highest leaves of Yggdrasil. The antlers of the stag were quite magical as they produced sweet honey dews that fell onto earth furnishing all the waters and rivers.


Dwarf are little men have the power to become invisible and to assume any shape. A dwarf is a being that dwells in mountains and in the earth, and is variously associated with wisdom, smithing, mining, and crafting. They live for several hundred years and some can see the future. They usually look like men with large heads, wizened faces, long grey beards and misshapen short legs and feet.‎ Female dwarfs are hardly ever mentioned.


Einherjar (Pronunciation: 'Eye-n-hare-yar') are the spirits of the dead who live with the Aesir. The Valkyries come down from the Otherworld to the remains of a battle field and take the souls of those who died heroically to the Otherworld. Here they train and fight until the day of Ragnarok where they will return to earth and fight against the Giants alongside mankind.


Eir (help or mercy) (Pronunciation: 'Ire') is a Goddess of healing and shamanic healers, companion of the Goddess Frigg. Lyfjaberg (hill of healing) is where the Goddess sits surrounded by her helpful spirits. She presided over childbirth was held to possess power over life and death, and was revered as a life giver, both in the family home and in the courts of kings.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Uruz
     Day: Sunday
     Color: purple, green, orange, white

     Incense: lavender, sage
     Altar: upon cloth set twelve white candles, one sky-blue candle, a great jug of mead, and a pot of healing salve.
     Offering: inventory the medical supplies, help those who are poor and ill
     Plant: apple, garlic
     Rulership: health, life, childbirth, death
     Stone: agate, aquamarine, carnelian
     Symbol: sun, health, mercy, air


Elf according to Anglo-Saxon lore there are two types of elves, the light Elves (Liosalfar) and dark Elves (Svartalfar). They come in all shapes and sizes but all work very powerful magick. Most resemble slender humans in their natural shape, but they can change or vanish in the blink of an eye. Dark elves of Germany are said to be hideous while Danish elves are renowned for their beauty. In English folklore, male elves are described as wizened old men while the females are lovely, golden haired maidens. An elf may be small enough to sleep under a toadstool or large enough to pass as human.


Fafnir was great Dragon of Norse legend. He was born from the Dwarf Hriedmar as a human but later became a Dragon. He later shed his wings and became a Wurm. Fafnir had poisonous breath which he used to plague his land. Regin sought the mortal hero Sigurd to kill Fafnir to end this madness. When Sigurd slew the beast he roasted its tongue in a fire and drank its blood giving him the ability to speak all languages.


Fenrir (Pronunciation: 'Fen-reer') is one of three great monsters born from the Giantess Angrboda and the trickster God Loki. It was a wolf of enormous size and a fierce manner. Its siblings were Hel, Goddess of the underworld and the Midgard Serpent. The Gods brought up the wolf as a pet but when it became too large and dangerous they tied it with chains. The wolf Fenrir bit Tyr's hand off. At Ragnarok Fenris would destroy creation but eventually he would be killed by Vidar, son of Odin.


Fire Giant is a certain class of giants said to reside in Muspelheim, the world of heat and fire, ruled by the fire giant Surtr. The main role of the fire giants in Norse mythology is to wreak the final destruction of the world by setting fire to it at the end of Ragnarok, when the giants of Jotunheim and the forces of Hel shall launch an attack on the Gods, and kill all but a few of them.


Forseti (Forseti, Foseti, Forsyte), of the Aesir: His name means 'Chairman.' He is the God of Law and Justice - through arbitration and also a settler of lawsuits and quarrels. A son of Balder and Nanna, Nep's daughter. His hall had a silver ceiling radiating light seen for a great distance. It is interesting to note that in even today's Iceland, the president is still called a 'Forseti'.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Tiwaz, Ingwaz, Jera, Raidho, Perdhro
     Color: yellow, silver, white

     Day: Friday
     Incense: cedar, rose
     Altar: upon cloth of white place eight red candles, a horn of mead, and a great axe
     Offerings: provide mediation for those who are warring
     Plant: mountain ash, yew, ivy, holly, nuts & cones
     Rulership: justice, law, mediation, peace, reconciliation, truth

     Stone: amethyst, aquamarine, lapis lazuli, tin
     Pronunciation: 'Fore-set-ee' (Forseti)
     Symbol: the scales of justice, air


Freyja (Freya, Frouwa, Frøya) of the Vanir: She is the Great Goddess, second only to Frigg. Her name means “The Lady.” The Goddess of the magic known as Seidhr (German Seith) which she taught to Odin, eroticism, physical well-being; She is the Queen of the Valkyries who choose those to be slain in battle and carry them to Valhalla. She is daughter of Njord, and twin sister to Freyr.

She is also a warrior Goddess of great wisdom and magick. She wears the sacred necklace Brisingamen, which she paid for by spending the night with the dwarves. She is married to Odr and her children are Hnoos and Gersemi. Hers is the magic of reading runes, trance & astral travel, and casting spells. She owns a falcon cloak, takes dove form, rides in a chariot drawn by two cats, or rides a boar. She weeps tears of gold, which become amber, called "Freya's Tears".

Correspondences:
     Runes: Fehu, Kaunaz, Jera, Uruz
     Wheel of Year: Beltane, Lughnasadh

     Color: black, green, red, gold
     Day: Friday
     Incense: mint, rose, strawberry
     Altar: upon cloth place gilded sheaves of wheat, gilded and silvered flowers, gilded nuts,     sugared fruits, corn dollies and straw ornaments, a chalice of mead and a horn of  beer, and figures of Frey and Freya
     Offerings: love, ritual sex as appropriate
     Plant: alder, apple, birch, bramble, elder, mugwort, rose, tansy, mistletoe, yarrow

     Rulership: beauty, cats, love, magic, passion, romance, sex, trance, wealth, witchcraft
     Stone: amber, copper, emerald, jade, malachite, moonstone, silver
     Pronunciation: 'Fray-ya' (Freyja)
     Symbol: boar, cat, Full Moon, necklace, spider, falcon, earth


Freyr (Yngvi-Freyr, Ingwaz, Fröj), of the Vanir: His name means “Lord,” and he is the lord of prosperity, eroticism, peace, and physical well-being, and his weapon is a magic sword and he has a magic ship that sails unguided to its destination. Freyr is described as being very handsome, powerful, merciful and kind, and is called the "God of the World". As a fertility God of love and pleasure, Freyr was often depicted with an enlarged phallus. He is Freya's twin brother and is married to Gorda.

Like the Celtic God Cernunnos, he is the horned God of fertility and King of the Elves. He is married to Gerd and is father to Fjolnir. His golden boar, Gullenbursti, is the dawn of day. He rules over Alfheim, the land of the Light Elves. He and Freyja are the archetypal Lord & Lady of Wicca/Witchcraft.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ansuz, Ingwaz, Jera, Raidho, Sowilo

     Color: gold, green, red
     Day: Friday
     Incense: mint, rose, sandalwood
     Altar: upon cloth set a sheaf of grain, a golden cup of mead, a plate of bread and honey, the figure of a carved phallus, the figure of a boar, and an empty sheath
     Offerings: mead, those who partake in sex magic should do so in his honor
     Plant: ash, holly, ivy, mountain ash, nuts & cones, St. Johnswort, yew
     Rulership: rain, sunshine, harvest, horses, joy, love, ships, success, wealth, weather

     Stone: brass, bronze, gold, goldstone, rose quartz
     Pronunciation: 'Fray-er' (Freyr)
     Symbol: boar, Sun, sword, phallus, earth


Frigg (Frigga, Frija, Fricka), of the Aesir: Her name means “Love,” and she is Odin's wife, and mother to Baldur and Hoor. She is the Goddess of Civilization and the true Mother of all and protector of children. She spins the sacred Distaff of life, and is said to know the future, although she will not speak of it.

She spends her time spinning golden thread or weaving bright colored clouds. In order to perform this work she made use of a jeweled spinning wheel which shone brightly in the sky known as "Frigg's spinning wheel in the north" and in the south known as orions belt/girdle.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Berkanan, Dagaz, Mannaz, Uruz
     Wheel of Year: Beltane, Lughnasadh

     Color: blue, silver, green, white
     Day: Friday
     Incense: lily of the valley, strawberry, rose
     Altar: upon cloth set twelve white candles, one sky-blue candle, a great jug of mead, and a drop spindle full of handspun yarn
     Offering: learn to spin, bring harmony to some place that needs it
     Plant: birch, fir, hawthorn, spindletree, elder
     Rulership: abundance, childbirth, fertility, children, marriage, love, crafts, farming

     Stone: copper, emerald, moonstone, rose quartz, silver
     Pronunciation: 'Frih-gah' (Frigga)
     Symbol: crown, mother, family, dog, distaff, air


Frost Giant are huge beings from Niflheim, an icy region where it constantly snows and it is always winter. They are enemies to the Norse Gods and they would frequently fight them or challenge them to difficult tasks in order to prove their power. The first of the Frost Giants was Ymir, born from an icicle.


Fulla (Volla, Fylla) (Pronunciation: 'Fool-ah') is a bountiful Asynjur Goddess. In Norse mythology, Fulla is described as wearing a golden ribbon and as tending to the ashen box and the footwear owned by the Goddess Frigg, and, in addition, Frigg confides in Fulla her secrets.

Fulla also appear in some kennings (metaphores). According to Skáldskaparmál, höfuðband Fullu (ribbon of Fulla) is a kenning for gold. Another example is found in Gísla saga: "Fulla of rain of spear-shafts hall", which translates as simply meaning woman.

Correspondences:
     Colors: white, blue
     Altar: upon cloth set twelve white candles, one sky-blue candle, a great jug of mead, and a sheaf of grain
     Offering: inventory the food supplies, honor the virtue of hospitality


Fylgja is a female spirit of a woman or an animal from Norse belief which took many different forms giving messages to people in their dreams. Some Fylgia would stay with one family living with them through the generations. There are sometimes seen as mothers and were a part of the mother worship among the Norse. Each person may have one or more Fylgia watching over them. It is also believed that the Fylgia give advice and if the person heeds to such advice, they will be strong and lucky but if they ignore the advise the Fylgia will abandon them and they will soon die.


Garm is a hellish dog of Scandinavian legend. He guards the entrance of the underworld and has four eyes and his body is always covered in blood. He is extremely vicious to those that have done wrong in life before they enter the underworld. At Ragnarok he howls before the final battle and when many creatures and Gods lay dead he fights Tyr the one handed God and both kill each other.


Gefion (Gefjun, Gefyon, Gebjun): The Giver. The Goddess of Virtue and un-married women: A fertility Goddess and a shape-shifter. She created the island of Zealand with her plough. All women who die virgin are sent to her hall to become her servants in the afterlife, and thus she is characterized as a Goddess of virtue, yet she was also a fertility Goddess. The Goddess' name is also shared with a Norse term meaning "marriage", represented by the English language as "give", meaning "wife".

Correspondences:
     Runes: Fehu, Gebo, Jera
     Color: gold, green, white

     Day: Friday
     Incense: floral scents
     Altar: upon cloth set twelve white candles, one sky-blue candle, a great jug of mead, and a white stone
     Offering: do things alone without aid, all work should be solo for a day
     Plant: alder, corn, elder, hawthorn, thyme, wheat, yarrow
     Rulership: crops, fertility, good fortune, land, luck, ma
gical arts, plowing, prosperity
     Stone: amber, copper, malachite
     Pronunciation: 'Geef-yawn' (Gefjon)
     Symbol: corn, plow, wheat, ox, air


Gerd (Pronuciation: 'Geard-ah' Gerda) is a Giantess of Norse mythology. Gerd means ‘the Goddess of the Cultivated Land’. She was the daughter of Angrboda and Gimir the Frost Giant. The God Freyr fell in love with her. He sent Skirnir on a mission to get Gerd to meet with him, and if successful Skirnir will get Freyr’s enchanted sword. Skirnir at first tried to convince her with lovely words but failing this used magic runes to subdue her into agreeing to meet Freyr. She is a Goddess of fruitfulness in some aspects; however, she is also the protector of maidens and their modesty.

Correspondences:
     Colors: brown, green
     Altar: bury a sword, above the burial place a cloth with bunches of herbs from the                garden and a cup of ale
     Offerings: give aid to those who have lost children through choice or not


Geri and Freki are the two pet wolves of the great Norse God Odin. Geri means ‘Ravener’ and Freki means ‘Glutton’.  They traveled the world together and slowly populated the earth with wolves, their offspring.  Odin also encouraged his warriors to fight like wolves.


Giant (jotunn) are more properly called the “devourers,” the chaotic spirits of night, darkness, winter, and death, who are often the enemies of the Aesir. The jotunn are a mythological race that live in Jotunheimr. They were banished there by the Aesir who refuse them entry to their world, Asgard. The jotunn frequently interact with the Aesir, as well as the Vanir. They are usually in opposition to, or in competition with, them but also interact with them in a non-hostile manner. Some jotunn even intermarry with the Aesir and Vanir. This very complex relationship between these two comparable races develops most notably in the Prose Edda and the Poetic Edda.


Gnome are good natured, old, and hunch-backed, their skin is always earth toned (grey or brown usually) so they can blend in with their surroundings. They can move through the earth in any direction without tunnels, like a fish in water.


Goblin can appear benevolent, while others are mischievous or malevolent creatures. They are attributed with various (sometimes conflicting) abilities, temperaments and appearances depending on the story and country of origin. In some cases, goblins are little creatures related to the brownie and gnome. They are usually small, sometimes only a few inches tall, sometimes the size of a dwarf, and have magical abilities; they are greedy, especially for gold and jewelry.


Good Dwarves: The Master Smiths. The dwarfs are small and misshapen creatures made from the maggots in the giants Ymir dead body. They live under the ground. The dwarfs are natural good at crafting and loves treasures and the rare metals.

Correspondences:
     Color
: brown, dark green, gold, yellow
     Incense: cinnamon, ginger, milk & honey, spicy scents
     Plant: ferns, fir, juniper, pine
     Rulership: passiveness
     Stone: diamond, gold, goldstone, iron, pyrite, steel, zircon
     Symbol: anvil & hammer, jewelry, weapons


Grendel is a large human like monster in the Norse tales of Beowulf. He lived in the swamps and hated the sound of laughter and fun. At night he would emerge from his lair and kill around thirty warriors, dragging them back to his swamp to gorge on them.


Gullinbursti was the golden bristled boar crafted by the dwarves Brokk and Sindri during their wager with Loki. He later pulled the chariot of the God Frey. The boar is said to be able to run through the air and over the sea, day or night. Also, it shines so brightly that wherever it goes, no matter how gloomy the surrounding, the boar will light the way.


Gullveig (Heid) of the Vanir: The Gleaming One. Mistress of Magic. She came to live with the Aesir as a handmaiden to Freyja and a teacher of Seidhr. The Aesir tried to kill her, sparking the war with the Vanir. This was the first war in the world. For a long time the battle raged to and fro, with neither sides gaining much ground. Eventually the Gods became weary of war and began to talk of peace and hostages. Both sides swore to live side by side in peace.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Dagaz, Ehwaz, Sowilo, Tiwaz
     Color: gold
     Day: Sunday
     Incense: amber, cinnamon, frankincense
     Plant: ash, celandine, chamomile, marigold, mistletoe, St. Johnswort
     Rulership: healing, magic, seer-ship, sorcery
     Stone: chrysolite, copper, gold, jacinth, topaz
     Symbol: Sun


Hati is one of the great wolves of Norse mythology. His name means ‘Despiser’ and he will consume the moon at Ragnarok, the end of days. He helped bring the world to an end with Skoll who chased the sun.


Heimdall (Heimdallr, Rig, Hallinskidhi) of the Aesir: The White God of  Light and Guardianship. Born of nine maidens, all of whom were sisters, He is the handsome gold-toothed guardian of Bifrost, the rainbow bridge leading to Asgard, the home of the Gods, and thus the connection between body and soul. As a child, Heimdall was sent by the Gods to teach humans to kindle the holy fire, to instruct them in runic wisdom, to teach them workmanship and handicraft, organized their society, and originated and stabilized the three classes of men as spoken of in the Song of Rig.

He lived long as a man among men, and his ruler ship was a golden age of peace and prosperity. Heimdall slept with three different women who bore the ancestors to the three different classes: earls, farmers and serfs. When he died as a human, he returned to the Gods where he was stripped of his aged human shape, regained his eternal youth and was taken into Asgard. It is He who will sound the signal horn to the Aesir that Ragnarok is beginning.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ehwaz, Ingwaz, Mannaz, Tiwaz
     Color: white, multi-colors
     Day: Thursday
     Incense: birch
     Plant: avens, oak, polypody, rose, verbena
     Rulership: beginnings & endings, against evil, guardian, morning light, protection

     Stone: amethyst, aquamarine, bronze, copper, gold
     Pronunciation: 'Highm-dahl' (Heimdall)
     Symbol: horn, rainbow, light, ram


Hela (Hel, Hell, Haljô) of the Aesir: The Goddess of the Dead and the Afterlife, she herself is half-dead, half alive. The Vikings viewed her with considerable trepidation. Nevertheless, the Germans saw her as Mother Holle and helpful in times of need, but vengeful upon those who transgress natural law. 

Hela welcomes all those who do not die gloriously in battle but of accidents, sickness or of old age, and are hence unworthy of the higher abodes of the Gods. Hellas realm in itself isn't bad, with older sources make it rather pleasant, and indeed a close reflection of the idealized god-house seen in descriptions of Valhalla (Hel and Odin have much in common, in fact). The concept of Hela and her kingdom is certainly something that has been immensely twisted by later Christian writers into something more fitting of horror fiction rather than the ruler of the kingdom of death.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Beorc, Hagalaz, Isa
     Wheel of the Year: Samhain, Yule
     Moon phase: dark, new
     Color: black, white

     Day: Saturday
     Incense: myrrh, storax
     Altar: upon black cloth to the right place four black candles, a skull, bones, a pot of earth, a pile of withered leaves, and a gravestone and/or upon white cloth to the left place four white candles, incense, an ivory chalice of mead, a crystal sphere, and a bunch of dried roses - veil the windows
     Offerings: blood, difficulty, an arduous task that will take all you have to give, and will benefit the generations yet to come
     Plant: wormwood, hellebore, juniper, belladonna, willow, yew

     Rulership: dark magic, revenge, death, change
     Stone: black agate, jet, lead, obsidian, onyx
     Pronunciation: 'Hel-lah' (Hella)
     Animal: wolf, owl, raven, dog


Hermod of the Aesir: The Brave One. Son of Odin. Hermodr the Brave (war-spirit), was the messenger of the Gods. He agreed to go and offer Hel a ransom in exchange for Baldur's return to Asgard. On reaching Hel's hall, Hel announced that Balder would only be released if all things, dead and alive, wept for him. He is the son of God Odin and often equated to the Greek God Hermes.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ehwaz, Ingwaz, Tiwaz
     Color: red
     Day: Tuesday
     Incense: dragon’s blood, pepper
     Plant: hawthorn, pine, thistle, woodruff, wormwood

     Rulership: bravery, honor
     Stone: bloodstone, garnet, iron, red agate, red topaz, ruby, steel
     Pronunciation: 'Hare-mod' (Hermod)
     Symbol: shield, sword, messenger


Hex is the old Germanic word for a Witch. In Scandinavian myth the Hex is proficient in casting spells and has great knowledge in nature and natural forces. The word was also used to simply mean a magic ‘spell’, usually with malevolent purposes such as a curse.


Hod (Pronunciation: 'Hawd') is the God of darkness and winter, the blind son of Odin and Frigg, as well as the brother of Baldur. It was Hod who threw the mistletoe (guided by Loki) which was to slay the otherwise invulnerable Baldur. For this crime, Odin and Rind gave birth to Vali specifically so he could kill Hod.

Hod is a mighty warrior and the blind God of war, a God of brute strength and force. His blindness is often equated with the non-judgment or the blind wrath of battle. Such a comparison truly reflects the character of the God in mythological sources that do in fact depict him as being free of particular malice or evil mindset.


Holda (Holle, Berchta) (Pronunciation: 'Hool-dah') Goddess known through German folklore, her name means "the Gracious One". She has much in common with Frigga, being the patroness of spinners and the keeper of social order, especially enforcing taboos about working on holy days. She is also said to be the keeper of the souls of young children, and women who want to bear children ask for them at her well. Holda also appears at times as the leader of the Wild Hunt.

According to one tale, it was she who taught humans how to plant and process flax. When it snows, Holda is supposed to be shaking out her feather-bed. Hulda - Despite the ill treatment we see of the Goddess in later legends (which often depicts her as cruel, ugly / physically deformed or malicious), Holda is in fact a kindly, gracious and helpful Goddess -as indicated by the root meaning of her name (OHG hold: inclined, devoted, gracious, kind). This name is a later derivative of Holda.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Hagalaz, Isa
     Color: black, brown

     Day: Saturday
     Incense: storax, myrrh
     Altar: on cloth lay a spindle full of spun wool, a basket of white goose-feathers, two white   candles, a needle and thread, a horn of mead, and a dish of honey-cakes, lean a broom against the altar
     Offerings: cakes buried under the earth, organize and clean the house
     Plant: beech, elm, ivy, blackthorn, yew
     Stone: onyx, jet, obsidian, lead
     Symbol: wolf, bear, earth


Horse has a spiritual practice with archaeological evidence of its existence during the Iron Age and, in some places, as far back as the Bronze Age. The horse was seen as divine, as a sacred animal associated with a particular deity, or as a totem animal impersonating the king or warrior. Sleipnir is a grey eight-legged horse. There are also Skinfaxi and Hrimfaxi, the horses which bring daylight and night. Along with Gyllir, Lettfeti, Arvak, Silfrtopp..., the list could go on for dozens more. 


Huginn is one of the ravens of the mighty Norse God Odin. His name means ‘Thought’ and is accompanied by his brother Muninn meaning ‘Memory’. They spy on the entire world and come to rest on Odin’s shoulders and whisper any vital news to his ear. Odin sends them out in the morning and they return at the end of the day.


Idunna (Iduna, Ostara, Idunn, Austrôn), of the Aesir: The Goddess of immortality, youth and beauty. She is the Goddess of the spring, eternal youth and the keeper of the golden apples and granter of eternal youthfulness.

Idunn is the custodian of the golden apples which allowed the Aesir gods to maintain their youthfulness, and was the only one among the Gods who was allowed to gather them, which she safely kept in a golden chest. Idunnas' (Ostara to the continental Germans and Anglo Saxons) totem animal is the Rabbit, (which is known as the Easter Bunny) due to its tendency for quick and numerous reproduction. Another of her symbols is the Egg, symbolizing eternal life and fertility. Her memory proved so enduring in Saxon England that the springtime feast was eventually called by her Saxon name; Easter.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ehwaz, Othala
     Wheel of Year:
Spring Equinox

     Color: green, gold
     Day: Monday
     Incense: apple blossom
     Altar: outside upon cloth place a bowl of apples in different colors, a horn of mead, a polished stone, a bowl of nuts, and many gardening tools such as hoes and spades
     Offerings: concentrate entirely on gardening one day, even in inclement weather
     Plant: birch, fir, hawthorn, apple, rose, willow
     Rulership: beauty, long life, responsibility, youth

     Stone: copper, crystal, quartz, smoky topaz
     Pronunciation: 'Eye-dune-ah' (Idunna)
     Symbol: golden apple, youth, earth


Imp is a mythological being similar to a fairy or goblin, frequently described in folklore and superstition. Originating from Germanic folklore, the imp was a small lesser goblin. Imps were often mischievous rather than evil or harmful, and in some regions, they were portrayed as attendants of the Gods.


Jord (Pronunciation: 'Yord') is the great Goddess of the wild, primitive and uncivilized areas on Earth. Jord is the mother of Thor who was fathered by Odin. Identified as a giantess, she is often referred to in poetry as "Odin's bride". The traces that have survived of the worship of the personified Earth herself show that she was honored by the Germanic people, though not active in many tales.

Correspondences:
     Color: green
     Altar: upon cloth of the colors of the Earth place the figure of a pregnant woman, and also the figure of a woman made from the branches of trees, wearing a dress, and a  chalice of mead
     Offerings: clean some small part of the Earth


Jormungand (Pronunciation: 'Yorm-un-gand-are') is the ancient name for the terrifying and colossal Midgard Serpent. It was so large that it surrounded the earth with its head touching its tail. After all fights and tales are over, the Jormungandr was to make its final strike at Ragnarok. When the Giants of the world rose up and Loki betrayed the Gods, a war broke out that would devastate the Gods. In this epic battle, Jormungandr burst from the depths of the ocean and struck Thor. The great God Thor took his mighty hammer and struck left and right to kill the serpent beast. But although Thor slew the monster, in the end Jormungandr had struck a fatal blow and both God and beast fell dead in battle.


Jotun (jotunn) (Pronounced: 'Yoo-tun') is the Norse name for Giants from the Teutonic tribes of what is now western Germany. They lived in Jotunheim in the north eastern land of Asgard. There were many types of these Giants. There were air giants, ice giants, mountain giants, and water giants. At times they were benevolent to humans and Gods, but were also at times very aggressive. They were fond of crafting, building and drinking. The female Giants were sometimes called Gygr and were said to be very beautiful in contrast to the males who had rough hard-looking faces.


Kobold is a Gnome-spirit that lives in the mines of Germany. They are very skilled in making metal and sometimes they help an associated family with house hold tasks in return for sharing supper with them.


Kraken is a giant squid of Norse legend that consumed entire ships. It was a thing released in Greek Clash of the Titans but there have also been stories of the Kraken from the north sea near Norway. It would grapple a ship with its tentacles and drag it under the water in a swirling motion creating a whirlpool so that none could escape. It especially like the taste of human flesh.


Kvasir (Pronunciation: Vas-eer) After the war of the Æsir and Vanir, the two godly tribes sealed peace by spitting into a bowl and creating Kvasir from the mingled spittle. He was said to be the wisest of all beings.

Kvasir was murdered by two dwarven brothers: Fjalar (hider) and Galar (chanter). They then mixed, preserved and fermented Kvasirs' blood with honey into a powerful magical mead that inspired poets, shamans and magicians. Odin now gives the Mead of Poetry: Odroerir (Stirrer of inspiration) to the Aesir, to the Valkyries for reviving dead heroes upon their arrival in Valhalla, and to all who have the ability to compose poetic verse.


Landvættir (Pronunciation: 'Lands-vayt-teer') are guardian Earth Sprites or Land Spirits.  In this group can be classed all the beings who guard certain places, those who are bound to rocks, streams, or trees, and the lesser nature spirits in general.  The Landvaettir are visible to the sensitive and to those faring forth from their bodies.  They also appear in dreams.  They do not change shape, but an individual Landvaettir may appear as almost anything.


Light Elves: The Little People, the Hidden People. Light elves are beautiful creatures. The God Freyr, is the ruler of Alfheim. The Light elves are minor Gods of nature and fertility; they can help or hinder humans with their knowledge of magical powers. They do also often deliver an inspiration to art or music.

Correspondences:
     Color: blue, green, silver
     Incense: fir, floral scents, ginger, lily of the valley, milk & honey
     Plant: alder, ferns, fir, marigold, pine, thyme
     Stone: bronze, copper, moonstone quartz, rock crystal, silver
     Symbol: bow & arrow, horses, leaf, star, vine, wand


Loki (Loke, Lopt, Laugatjanaz):  Neither an Aesir or a Vanir: Blood brother of Odin. The Father of Lies, Trickster, Shape-changer. Son of the giant Farbauti, he is of the race of Ettins (Elementals) and possesses some of their daemonic qualities. He is the Trickster, and the God of Fire and Misfortune.

He is both a helper and a foe of the Aesir, but it was he who spawned the monsters: the Fenris Wolf and  the Midgard Wyrm, Jormurgandr. He is married to Sigyn and his other children include the Goddess Hel and Sleipnir, Odin's 8-legged horse. He is the originator of deceit, and the disgrace of all Gods and men, and ultimately the Destroyer of all things. His wife is Sigyn, and their son, Nare, or Narfe.

Correspondences:
     Runes:
Kaunaz, Naudiz, Thurisaz
     Color: black, red
     Day: Saturday
     Incense: dragon’s blood, pepper, yew
     Altar: upon a cloth place three red candles, a stone with the
rune Kaunaz carved into it, the figure of a mare, the figure of a bird, two small round stones, and a chain
     Offerings: examine yourself for how you manipulate others, even for their own good, or with truthful means
     Plant: beech, blackthorn, elder, elm, ivy, juniper, mullein, thistle, willow, yew

     Rulership: cunning, dark magic, deceit, fires, mischief, revenge, thieves, trickery, wit
     Stone: black agate, jet, lead, obsidian, onyx
     Pronunciation: 'Low-key' (Loki)
     Symbol: snake, fire, salmon, fly


Mani (Manni) the God of the moon and brother of the sun Goddess Sol. Máni "guides the path of the moon and controls its waxing and waning." Máni is followed through the heavens by the brother and sister children Hjuki and Bil.

A man named Vidfinn had two children named Hjuki and Bil. He sent them to the well Byrgir to fetch a cask of water. When Mani saw the two children he took them away with him to the moon. The two children, together with their cask and pole, can be seen on the face of the moon (the moon spots).  This myth is said to be the origin of the nursery rhyme about Jack and Jill.

Correspondences:
     Color: silver, white, black, pale

     Runes: Dagaz, Ehwaz
     Day: Monday
     Incense: myrrh, vanilla, peppermint
     Plant: water lily, seaweed, periwinkle, night-blooming flowers

     Rulership: Moon
     Stone: aquamarine, moonstone, quartz
     Pronunciation: 'Mah-nee' (Mani)
     Symbol: Moon, water, hour glass


Mara is a type of elf steal babies, rustle cattle, pilfer food, and cause disease. They sit on people as they sleep, causing bad dreams. This is the personification of a nightmare in Scandinavian myth. It takes the form of a spirit that enters people and gives them nightmares. In this way they are similar to the Succubus or Incubus of ancient Greece.


Mimir, (Mimi) of the Aesir: The Wise One. He is the God of knowledge and wisdom. He is the wisest God of the Aesir, he was sent as a hostage during the Aesir Vanir war. He was beheaded by the Aesir and his head sent to Asgard. The head of Mimir recites secret knowledge and counsel to Odin.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ansuz, Dagaz, Ehwaz, Laguz, Mannaz, Othala
     Color: yellow, blue, white

     Day: Sunday
     Incense: cinnamon
     Altar: upon cloth set three white candles, a bowl of stones and well water, a silver cup of mead, and the figure of a human skull set upon a long tail of spun white hair
     Offerings: secret offerings unspoken
     Plant: ash, celandine, chamomile, marigold, mistletoe, St. Johnswort
     Rulership: the arts, inland lakes, knowledge, peace, pools, springs, teaching, wisdom

     Stone: chrysolite, copper, gold, jacinth, topaz
     Pronunciation: 'Meem-eer' (Mimir)
     Symbol: fountain, pool, well, water


Muninn is one of the two ravens that rides on Odin’s back. Its name means ‘Memory. The other crow was called Huginn whose name means ‘Thought’. They spy on the entire world and come to rest on Odin’s shoulders and whisper any vital news to his ear. Odin sends them out in the morning and they return at the end of the day.


Nanna (Nanda), of the Aesir:  She is married to Baldur and mother to Forseti. She is a Goddess of Love, Romance and Fertility, also of Wealth and Prosperity. She is said to have died of grief when Balder was killed. Nanna shines as the epitome of feminine courageousness, unwavering loyalty, and nobility of heart.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Berkanan, Uruz, Wunjo
     Color: pale green, silver
     Day: Monday
     Incense: floral scents, jasmine, juniper, lotus
     Plant: birch, fir, hawthorn, mugwort, rose, willow
     Rulership: gentleness, love

     Stone: moonstone, quartz, silver
     Pronunciation: 'Naa-naa' (Nanna)
     Symbol: crescent Moon


Nehallennia  Goddess of Plenty. Nehalennia (spelled variously) is a Goddess of unclear origin. Nehalennia, a Germanic Goddess worshipped at the point where travelers crossed the North Sea from the Netherlands, is shown on many carved stones holding loaves and apples like a Mother Goddess, sometimes with a prow of a ship beside her, but also frequently with an attendant dog which sits looking up at her.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Berkanan, Laguz, Uruz, Wunjo
     Color: green, yellow
     Day: Friday
     Incense: floral scents, rose, sandalwood
     Plant: alder, birch, bramble, elder, mugwort, rose, tansy, thyme, vervain, yarrow
     Rulership: fishing, fruitfulness, plenty, seafaring
     Stone: amber, bronze, copper, emerald, jade, malachite, moonstone, silver
     Symbol: cornucopia


Nerthus (Hertha) is Mother Earth and a Goddess of the Sea and of Rivers. The "Mother Earth" worshipped by the North Sea Germans, according to the Roman historian Tacitus (writing in the first century of the Christian era). Her worship included the springtime procession of a wagon in which her image was kept, which ended on a holy island.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Berkana, Dagaz, Ehwaz, Laguz, Raidho, Wunjo
     Color: brown, green, blue

     Day: Monday
     Incense: jasmine, juniper, lotus
     Altar: outside upon cloth place pots of Earth in which has been drawn the runes Feoh, and
Berkana, and Jera, and seeds to be planted, and a wooden tray of small cakes marked with the runes Sigil, and Tyr, and Ansuz, and a horn of mead, and a pitcher of rain or snow water
     Offerings: planting seeds, doing something to clean the earth or air.
     Plant: birch, fir, hawthorn, loosestrife, mint, mugwort, rose, willow

     Rulership: fertility, groves, peace, purification, sea, Spring, wealth, witchcraft
     Stone: copper, crystal, quartz, smoky topaz
     Pronunciation: 'Nearth-os' (Nerthus)
     Symbol: groves, sea, earth, water


Nidhogg is the dragon of death in Scandinavian legend. Its name means ‘malice stricker’. Nidhoggr eats corpses and drinks the blood of the dead. Nidhoggr lives at the bottom of Yggdrasil the celestial world tree that supports the Earth. The Dragon constantly gnaws away at the roots of this tree hoping to one day topple all 9 worlds. He is joined by the 4 celestial stags which graze at the leaves near the top of the tree.


Nix is a water creatures from Scandinavia, Germany, and Switzerland who haunts lakes and rivers. They are not attractive but have long grey hair and aged face. Like the Mermaid they lure their victims into the water to be drowned. Male Nixi have quite a different appearance with the head and neck of a human, the body of a fox and the lower-half of a horse.


Njord (Njördhr, Norþaz, Nirdu):  God of the Oceans and Rivers and Lord of Abundance and Material well-being, and is King among the Vanir. Married to the giantess Skadi, he begat two children: a son, Freyr, and a daughter, Freya. Njord was directly responsible for bringing the primeval war between the Gods to an end, and in establishing peace between the two tribes. Down through the ages, Heathens have remembered him for this monumental feat, and to this day, still call upon him for peace. Norway is named after him (Nojord's way).

Correspondences:
     Runes: Fehu, Ehwaz, Laguz, Mannaz, Othala
     Color: sea-blue
     Day: Thursday

     Incense: cedar, vervain
     Altar: upon cloth set a Scandinavian ship, a net, a basket of fish-shaped cakes, and a metal tankard of mead
     Offerings: give aid to a sailor, the House should together send a package to one who sails the seas and has need of support
     Plant: avens, ferns, oak, oak moss, polypody, verbena

     Rulership: fishing, guarantees oaths, lands, prosperity, sailors, success, wind, wisdom
     Stone: amethyst, aquamarine, tin, turquoise
     Pronunciation: 'N-yoard' (Njord)
     Symbol: fish, sea, peace, ships, water


Nordi (north) is one of four Dwarves in Scandinavian myth. He helps support the dome of the sky which was the skull from the primordial Giant Ymir. He is helped with his brothers Austri, Westri and Sudri. Each Dwarf is located in one of the four cardinal directions.


Norns (Pronunciation: 'Noarns') are the guardians of fate and destiny in Norse mythology. There were three main Norns that lived in a hall under the world tree Yggdrasil and were called Urd, Verdandi and Skuld which means ‘Became, Become and Becoming’ or ‘Past, Present and Future’ respectively. There were also minor norns that attached itself to a new born child and oversaw their life span.

Each man's and woman's life is a string in their loom, and the length of the string is the length of the person's life. Everything is preordained in the Norse Religion: even the Gods have their own threads, though the Norns do not let the Gods see those. This clear subjection of the Gods to a power outside their control and the implication that they, too, will have an end are major themes of the literature surrounding the mythology.


Odin (Óðinn, Woden, Godan), of the Aesir: Father of all the Gods and of men. The God of magick, ecstasy, poetry, and man’s consciousness of inner divinity; He brings knowledge, wisdom, ideas and inspiration to help Mankind. He is both the shaper of Wyrd (fate) and the bender of Orlog (destiny) showing the interconnected nature of all actions. He is married to Frigg and father to Baldur and Hod.  Although he has many lovers and many more children.

It is he who makes men mad, possessed of driving rage, and also the “madness” perceived of the warrior in battle, the seer in trance, the poet’s creativity. It is also he who sacrifices an eye at the well of Mimir to gain inner wisdom, and later hangs himself upon Yggdrasil to gain the knowledge and power of the Runes. He can travel to any realm within the nine Nordic worlds. He is pictured wearing a floppy hat and a blue-grey cloak and is accompanied by two ravens, Hugginn (thought) and Munin (memory) who daily fly over the world reporting all that has happened.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ansuz, Dagaz, Ehwaz, Ingwaz, Jera, Lagaz, Othala, Wunjo

     Color: black, orange, red, dark blue, grey  
     Day: Wednesday
     Incense: dragon’s blood, pine, sandalwood
     Altar: on a cloth place a horn of mead, an evergreen branch, and a set of runes laid out in concentric circles
     Offerings: mead, do something in a leadership position especially if it is difficult
     Plant: beech, ferns, maidenhair, mandrake, marjoram, polypody, valerian, yew

     Rulership: the arts, civilization, fate, healing, horses, initiation, magic, wild hunt, wisdom
     Stone: agate, carnelian, gold, jet, onyx, tin
     Pronunciation: 'Oh-din' (Odin)
     Symbol: blue cloak & floppy hat, eagle, raven, wolf, spear, air


Puck (Puki) (Pronunciation: 'Pook-ee') is a mischievous nature spirit, leading folk astray with echoes and lights in nighttime woodlands or coming into the farmstead and souring milk in the churn. Significantly for such a place-spirit or genius, the Old English word occurs mainly in place names, which strongly suggests that the Puca was older in the landscape of Britain than the language itself. The origin of the Puki goes back to the Indo-European origins of the Germanic peoples and can be found in the Celtic (Welsh pwcca and Irish pooka).


Ran (Pronunciation: 'Rawhn') of the Vanir: The Ravager. She is married to Aegir, is malicious and unpredictable. She is the Goddess of storms and the drowned dead. She has a net with which she tries to capture men who ventured out on the sea. The sea was also referred to as "Rán's road".

She stirs up the tempests that swallow ships beneath the angry waves, or shatters their hulls against the jagged rocks lurking beneath the swells. In stormy or troubled waters, sailors of old would hide gold pieces upon their person as payment for her hospitality in the event that they should be drowned. Nordic customs tell us that when those lost at sea showed themselves at the funeral feast, it was a sign that Ran had indeed given them a happy and welcome reception.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Kaunaz, Naudiz, Thurisaz

     Color: black, sea-green
     Day: Saturday
     Song: Harp Song of the Dane Women, along with any other sea songs, sung as offerings
     Incense: dragon’s blood, juniper, storax
     Plant: beech, buckthorn, elder, elm, ivy, juniper, mullein, willow, yew
     Rulership: drowning, great terror, sailors, sea, storms
     Stone: black agate, jet, lead, obsidian, onyx
     Symbol: fish nets, stormy sea, water


Ratatosk (Pronunciation: 'Rat-at-awsk') is a cosmic squirrel that lives in the world tree Yggdrasil in Norse mythology. It runs up and down the tree to report messages from the Dragon Nidhoggr at the bottom and to the eagle that sits at the top of the tree. However Ratatosk is clumsy with his messages and tends to report something quite different from what he was told which creates disharmony between the eagle and the Dragon.


Saga (Pronunciation: 'Saw-ga') is one of Frigg's handmaidens. Saga's name means the 'seeing one' and she is the Asynjur Goddess of poetry and history. Saga is known to teach men the skills necessary to effectively utilize it in weaving the crafty spells which preserve the holy and living accounts of our Gods and folk. Her name is related to the Norse word saga, though not the same.

According to the Grímnismál, her hall is called Sökkvabekk, (Sunken Benches) and she and Odin drink out of golden cups there retelling old stories of glory. She, together with Odin, cares for writers.

Correspondences:
     Color: parchment
     Altar: upon paper place all the books that those of the House wish blessed, plus burning sticks of
recaning herbs (cleansing via smoke, whether through incense or a bundle of herbs - usually juniper and mugwort) - take care though since Saga wouldn't want the books burned
     Offerings: donate books to libraries or to people who need them


Sea Serpents are a kind of sea monster either wholly or partly serpentine. Sightings have been reported for hundreds of years. Loch Ness, Nessie, is one of the more common in Scotland.  Despite the numerous sightings, though, no credible physical evidence has been recorded. In Norse mythology, Jormungand  was a sea serpent so long that it encircled the entire world, Midgard. 


Serpent is a synonym for snake. Occasionally, serpents and dragons are used interchangeably, having similar symbolic functions. Snakes have been associated with some of the oldest rituals known to humankind and represent dual expression of good and evil.  In the Poetic Edda, Odin tells of 8 serpents gnawing on the roots of Yggdrasil: Nidhoggr, Gravvitnir, Moin, Goin, Grabakr, Grafvolludr, Svafnir and Ofnir.


Sif (Sibba, Sippe), of the Aesir: The Harvest Goddess. She is married to Thor, and mother to Pruor and Ullr. She is associated with fertility, family and wedlock. Sif is best known for her long golden hair. She appears only in one surviving tale: where Loki cuts her hair off in the night and, to save himself from Thor's wrath, gets the dwarfs to forge hair of real gold for her, along with several of the other great treasures of the Gods. It has often been suggested that she is also a fertility Goddess, whose rippling golden hair may be seen in the ripe grain.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Berkanan, Gebo, Jera, Wunjo
     Color: gold, green
     Day: Monday
     Incense: floral scents, jasmine
     Plant: birch, chamomile, fir, hawthorn, mugwort, rose, willow
     Rulership: beautiful hair, fruitfulness, generosity, harvest, plenty, family

     Stone: brass, bronze, copper, crystal, quartz, smoky topaz
     Pronunciation: 'Sif' (Sif)
     Symbol: loom, mirror, earth


Sigyn the Faithful. She is married to Loki, and mother to sons Nari and Narfi. She sits by the bound Loki with a cup, protecting him from the venom dripping onto his face.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Sowilo, Uruz, Wunjo

     Color: light pastel colors, pink
     Day: Monday
     Incense: floral scents
     Altar: on the altar with cloth of light pastel colors, upon which place candles of light colors, many flowers, graceful toys and dreamy figures, and a silver chalice of  liqueur - in the center place a black cloth with a burnt wooden bowl full of ashes
     Offerings: care for the wounded, bring food to those who need it
     Plant: birth, fir, hawthorn, mugwort, rose, willow

     Rulership: faithfulness, love, loyalty
     Stone: bronze, copper, crystal, quartz, smoky topaz
     Pronunciation: 'Seeg-in' (Sigyn)
     Symbol: bowl, air


Sjofna (Sjofn, Sjöfn) (Pronunciation: 'Syoa-fen'): Goddess of Love who can turn anyone’s thoughts to love. Sjofn is the Goddess of marital bliss. She stops fights between husbands and wives.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Gebo, Wunjo
     Color: red, white, blue
     Day: Friday
     Altar: upon cloth set twelve white candles, one sky-blue candle, a great jug of mead, and a heart-shaped cake
     Offering: show affection to someone
     Incense: mint, rose, sandalwood
     Plant: alder, birch, elder, mugwort, rose, willow
     Rulership: dark magic, hunting, mountains, revenge, winter
     Stone: amber, copper, emerald, jade, malachite, moonstone, silver
     Symbol: heart


Skadi (Skaði) of the Vanir: Mistress of Dark Magic and the Goddess of Winter and of the Hunt. She is the present wife of Uller and the former wife of the Vanic God Njord. She was married to Njord, the Sea God noted for his beautiful bare feet, symbolic of fertility and attractive to Skadi. She may be invoked in cases of justice, vengeance, and righteous anger, and is the deity who sentenced Loki to be bound underground with a serpent dripping poison upon his face in punishment for his crimes. Skadi's character is found in two of Hans Christian Anderson's tales:  "The Snow Queen" and "The Ice Princess."

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ehwaz, Hagalaz. Isa, Kaunaz, Thurisaz
     Color: black, white

     Day: Saturday
     Incense: dragon’s blood, myrrh, pepper
     Altar: upon cloth set snowflakes, frosted branches, a horn of mead, the figure of a white wolf, a pair of skis, a pair of snowshoes, a bow and arrows, and a bowl of meat
     Offerings: meat left to the forest spirits
     Plant: beech, blackthorn, elder, elm, ivy, juniper, mullein, willow
     Rulership: dark magic, hunting, mountains, revenge, winter

     Stone: black agate, jet, obsidian, onyx, tin
     Pronunciation: 'Skay-dee' (Skadi)
     Symbol: mountains, New Moon, bow, skiing, air  


Skoll is the wolf of Norse mythology that would swallow the sun at Ragnarok, the end of the world. He is accompanied by his companion Hati who would devour the moon at Ragnarok.


Sleipnir is the magical horse of Norse mythology that has eight legs and is the mount to the God Odin. The eight legs resembles the eight directions of the heavens. Hermodr used the horse to jump over the wall of Hel in the underworld. Sleipnir was created by Loki.


Sprite is a supernatural legendary creature. They are often depicted as fairy, ghost and/or elf-like creatures.  The term is chiefly used in regard to elves and fairies in European folklore, and in modern English is rarely used in reference to spirits or other mythical creatures.  Dazzling in color and about the size of large insects, sprites have glistening membranous wings.  Some make their homes high in the branches of trees while others prefer to live near ponds and streams. They particularly love to live in the forests inhabited by tree folk and other fey (fairy) and enjoy cool weather and a calm, serene environment.


Stag usually refers to an adult male deer. Deer have significant roles in the mythology of various peoples. In Norse mythology, four stags or harts (male red deer) eat among the branches of the World Tree Yggdrasil.


Sudri (south) is one of four Dwarves in Scandinavian myth. He helps support the dome of the sky which was the skull from the primordial Giant Ymir. He is helped with his brothers Austri, Westri and Nordi. Each Dwarf is located in one of the four cardinal directions.


Sunna (Sol, Sonna, Sunne): The Sun. Sol is a Goddess of the sun, who guides the sun-chariot through the sky. She is the sister of the Moon Mani.  The Sun is always feminine in Germanic languages, spirituality and culture, just as the Moon is always masculine. In ancient times Sunna was greatly worshipped by the Germanic tribes.

She is chased during the daytime by the wolf Skoll who tries to devour her, just like her brother Mani is chased by the wolf Hati at night. It was believed that during solar eclipses the sun was in danger of being eaten by Skoll. Eventually, the wolf will catch her.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Sowulo, Dagaz
     Color: red, yellow, gold

     Day: Sunday
     Incense: cedar, orange, frankincense
     Plant: chili, coffee, garlic, sunflower

     Rulership: Sun
     Stone: fire opal, ruby, sunstone, volcanic stone, citrine
     Pronunciation: 'Soon-na' (Sunna)
     Symbol: Sun, fire, clock


Surtr (Pronunciation: 'Sert-er') is the leader of the Fire Giants and ruler of Muspelheim. His name means ‘Soot’ and it is he who will lead the Fire Giants to attack the people of this world at the time of Ragnarok. He wields a flaming sword. His sword is flaming and at the end of the present world - Ragnarok, he is destined to make war against the Gods and triumph over them and burn the whole world with fire. Only Hodmimir's Forest will remain, because that is the only thing his sword cannot destroy.


Swan Maiden is a mythical creature who shape shifts from human form to swan form. Despite the name, males are found in a small number of legends. The key to the transformation is usually a swan skin, or a garment with swan feathers attached.


Syn (Pronunciation: 'Sigh-n') The denier Goddess who guards gates and doorways against those who should not enter. Syn is one of Frigg's maidens, a keeper of truth, and is concerned with the furtherance and maintaining of justice. She is particularly known for coming to the aid of defendants at trial or Althing - protecting the wrongfully accused or attacked in such settings. Further, she is a keeper of the door of the Hall, denying access to all those who are unfit, unworthy, or likewise unwelcome to enter.

Correspondences:
     Colors: white, blue
     Altar: upon cloth set twelve white candles, one sky-blue candle, a great jug of mead, and a large coin
     Offering: go over contracts, give your word and keep it, practice the virtue of honor


Tanngniortr and Tanngrisnir are the two celestial goats that draw the chariot of Thor the God of thunder in Norse mythology. Their names mean ‘Tooth Gnasher’ and ‘Tooth Grinder’ respectively.


Thor (Þórr, Donnar, Thuraz), of the Aesir: The red-headed God of Thunder and weather in general, powerful Protection, Inspiration, Magical Power, and Personal Strength. Thor is a son of Odin, is the foremost of the Aesir, and rules over the realm called Thrudvang. He is the strongest of all Gods and men, and is the protector of all Midgard. He wields the mighty hammer Mjollnir that causes lightening flashes. His battle car is drawn by two goats. He is married to Sif, and father to Pruor and Ullr. The Oak is sacred to Thor.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ansuz, Ehwaz, Ingwaz, Raidho, Thurisaz
     Color: red, blue
     Day: Thursday

     Incense: dragon’s blood, juniper, pine
     Altar: upon cloth lay a bowl of rainwater, a cup of mead, and a Thor's hammer
     Offerings: mead libation
     Plant: acorns, avens, oak, oak moss, thistle
     Rulership: courage, defense, goats, oaks, strength, voyages, trust, war, water, weather

     Stone: carnelian, iron, lodestone, red agate, steel
     Pronunciation: 'Thoar' (Thor)
     Symbol:
hammer, thunder, storms, goat, air, oak


Troll were said to be smaller versions of Giants and were enemies to humans, Gods and animals. Many built dwellings in isolated places in the mountains and forests hiding away from people. They reside in the cold northern European country of Scandinavia. The Trolls of Norse myth were known to live under bridges that had been constructed in the depths of the forests and mountains. However most were known for living in the deep fissures and caverns of the mountains.


Tyr (Týr, Seaxnet, Ziu, Tue, Tiwaz), of the Aesir: Tyr is the God of Law & Justice, Rational Thought and Right Order, Protection, Divination, Astronomy, Strength and Courage; he is the ancient God of War and the Lawgiver of the Gods. He sacrificed his hand so that the evil Fenris wolf may be bound. In keeping with his patronage over justice and legal affairs, we find his hand in the settings of the Althing (the judgment-assembly of the Germanic peoples) which included ordeals and trial-by-combat as a measure of inducing Tyr to show his judgment.

He is renowned for his great wisdom and is unrivalled in his sense of duty and nerve. He may be invoked in all manners of justice, fair play, and right action. Deutschland (Germany) is also named after him (Tue's Land).

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ehwaz, Ingwaz, Jera, Kaunaz, Thurisaz
     Color: orange, yellow, red

     Day: Tuesday
     Incense: juniper, pine
     Altar: upon cloth lay swords, lined up in a row, a horn of mead, and a single glove
     Offering: agree to a promise that limits your convenience
     Plant: blackthorn, juniper, oak, thistle, vervain
     Rulership: athletics, bravery, honor, justice, law, order, sky, oaths, victory, war

     Stone: bronze, gray agate, smoky topaz, steel
     Pronunciation: 'Teer' (Tyr)
     Symbol: helmet, sword, wolf, fire, air


Ullr (Wuldor, Vuldr, Ulr) of the Aesir: The Magnificent, the Bow God, God of the Hunt. Ullr is a son of Sif, and a step-son of Thor.  Fair of face, he is a great warrior to be invoked by men in combat. He is the greatest archer, and the fastest skier.

Ullr is almost unknown in the myths but he has a religious importance far greater than would appear from the scanty surviving textual references, his name is seen in a lot of geographical names, especially in Sweden, so his cult in ancient times was quite wide spread. Ullr is the ancient Germanic Sky God of Winter and Death, hunting, single combat, the snowshoe, bow, and shield. A shield is often called the 'ship of Ullr' in the Iclenadic sagas. Ullr offered aid and protection to his followers in conflicts and in battle, survival and travel in the harsh winter climates.

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ehwaz, Isa, Perth, Tiwaz
     Color: white, yellow

     Day: Wednesday
     Incense: pine, sandalwood
     Plant: beech, fern, maidenhair, mandrake, marjoram, valerian
     Rulership: archery, beauty, single combat, hunting, magic, nobility

     Stone: agate, alloys, carnelian
     Pronunciation: 'Ool-ler' (Uller)
     Symbol: bow, mountains, skis


Var (Wara) is a beloved Asynjur, a Goddess of the Aesir. She is the Goddess of love contracts and marriage, she listens to oaths and agreements between men and women, and she takes vengeance on those who break them. Var is a patroness of the faithfulness of marriage, a keeper of plighted troth and vows and of the honesty, or lack thereof, and true heart of such words of binding.

Correspondences:
     Colors: white, blue
     Altar: upon cloth set twelve
white candles, one sky-blue candle, a great jug of mead, and a knife
     Offering: renew or rededicate oaths


Valkyrie (Pronunciation: 'Valk-eer-ee') are celestial ladies of Norse mythology who come to the battlefields to select the best warriors who have been slain and to bring them to Valhalla and Folkvang, the great halls of the upper world. All Valkyries are led by Freya and are attendants to Odin. The most well known was Brunnhilde, who allied herself with the Norse hero Sigurd and taught him runic magick.

In myth they have been seen as both very fierce ugly hags relishing in bloodshed and as beautiful young women living to serve the hero to which they are assigned. The Valkyries also acted as Odin's messengers. Their armor, which shone while doing his bidding, were once thought to have caused Aurora Borealis.

Correspondences:
     Color: black
     Altar: upon cloth set a black stone, a white stone, a chalice of mead, a knife, a skull, and the figure of a black winged horse
     Offerings: kneel and meditate on death, face a fear that is long overdue


Vanir Gods and Goddesses, is the second tribe of deities. The Vanir live in Vanaheim. They tend to be more associated with the 'natural world' than the Aesir. Among them are Freya, the most popular Goddess among the heathen Norse, and Freyr, Njord, and Nerthus, the keepers and bringers of peace and wealth.

They are Gods and Goddesses of fertility and prosperity, and they are seen as belonging to the earth, while the Aesir ruled the sky. The Vanir have a deep knowledge of magical arts, so that they also know the future. It was Freya who taught the Shamanic magical arts known as Seidr to the Aesir.


Ve (Sacred Enclosure) is one of the Aesir and a son of Bestla and Bor. His brothers were Vili and Odin, together they slew the proto-giant Ymir and made the worlds out of his body, and later created Humankind. Ve is credited for giving humanity the powers of speech and their external senses.


Vidar (Víðarr) (Pronunciation: 'Vid-are') the Silent God, is the son of Odin and the Goddess Grid. God of silence, stealth and revenge. In the reborn world that arises after Ragnarok (in which Vidar kills the giant wolf Fenris), Vidar is preordained to rule in Odin's stead.

He is renowned for his unwavering sense of duty and dependability, especially in times of trial or need-even the Gods themselves will often turn to his assistance in difficult or trying situations!


Vili (Villi, Lodurr, Will) is one of the Aesir and a son of Bestla and Bor. His brothers are Ve and Odin. He is the third God of the Odin-Honir-Lodurr trio which shaped and gave life to humankind. He is credited for giving humanity emotion and intelligence.  


Weiland (Weyland): The Smith of the Gods. A human who was wedded to a swan-maiden; after she left him, he was captured by the king Nidhad, hamstrung, and forced to work at the forge. He slew Nidhad's sons, seduced his daughter and left her pregnant, and flew away on wings he had forged himself. There is a megalithic tomb in England called "Weyland's Smithy".

Correspondences:
     Runes: Ehwaz, Ingwaz, Perth, Tiwaz
     Color: yellow
     Day: Wednesday
     Incense: juniper, thyme, vervain
     Plant: beech, ferns, juniper, marjoram, thyme, valerian
     Rulership: cunning, healing, horses, skill, magic, metal-working, strength
     Stone: agate, bronze, carnelian, iron, jasper, steel
     Symbol: anvil & hammer, horseshoes


Westri (west) is one of four Dwarves in Scandinavian myth. He helps support the dome of the sky which was the skull from the primordial Giant Ymir. He is helped with his brothers Austri, Nordi and Sudri. Each Dwarf is located in one of the four cardinal directions.


Wolf is a common motif in the foundational mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout Eurasia and North America. Norse mythology prominently includes three malevolent wolves, Fenrir, Skoll and Hati. On the other hand, however, the wolves Geri and Freki were the Norse God Odin's faithful pets who were reputed to be "of good omen."


Yggdrasil is an immense tree that is central in Norse cosmology, in connection to which the nine worlds exist. It is an immense ash tree that is central and considered very holy.  Yggdrasil was the tree of life.   It is a myth and portrays the perceived meaning of something rather than merely describing the thing’s physical characteristics.  For some, Yggdrasil wasn’t thought of as existing in a single physical location, but rather dwell within the invisible heart of anything and everything.


Ymir (Pronounced: 'I-meer') is the primordial Frost Giant of Norse mythology. He was created from the void of the Earth called Ginnungagap. He nurtured the great sacred cow Audumla. From his sweat, all other Giants were born. When the Gods were created, they fought against Ymir and killed him. They took his corpse to Ginnungagap and destroyed his body. His blood became the oceans, his bones, the mountains, his flesh, the Earth, his teeth and small bones, the rocks and his skull the sky. His hair became trees and his brains became the clouds. His skull in the sky was supported by four Dwarves named Austri, Westri, Nordi and Sudri who held one part of the skull in one of the four cardinal directions.



www.llewellyn.com/encyclopedia/article/26366

www.mythicalcreaturesguide.com

www.norse-mythology.org

www.timelessmyths.com



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