Saturday, December 14, 2013

Elements, Crystals and Minerals

There are certain gem stones and metals used in Wiccan rituals and jewelry for their spiritual energy or symbolic meaning.  Many Wiccans and Pagans use crystals and gemstones in workings, because every stone is connected to some aspect of the human experience. Different traditions attribute various therapeutic and magical properties to each stones. 

The Old Norse use of crystals was rune stones, magical stones with symbols that were used to predict the future or shed light on some event. The Vikings were claimed to have used crystals to guide their way on their voyages. The light that was reflected by the stones was used as a guiding light.  Stones were known to hold memories from the ages, making them great for guiding and future works.
 
Stones of all kinds are living beings. They have vibrations and can be influenced by other vibrations or thoughts.  If the stones are for ritual use, wrap them in a clean cloth of natural material, such as cotton, silk or wool. Keep them in a safe place where they will not be handled or touched by other people.

 

Agate Lake Superior                                                                                                        Earth

The Lake Superior agate is a type of agate stained by iron and found on the shores of Lake Superior. Its wide distribution and iron-rich bands of color reflect the gemstone's geologic history in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. It was formed during lava eruptions that occurred in Minnesota about a billion years ago.  The stone's predominant red color comes from iron, a major Minnesota industrial mineral found extensively throughout the Iron Range region.  Glacial activity spread agates throughout northeastern and central Minnesota, northwestern Wisconsin, Northern Iowa, and Michigan's Upper Peninsula.

The Lake Superior agate is noted for its rich red, orange, and yellow coloring. This color scheme is caused by the oxidation of iron. Iron leached from rocks provided the pigment that gives the gemstone its beautiful array of color. The concentration of iron and the amount of oxidation determine the color within or between an agate's bands. There can also be white, grey and red coloring on the rocks as well.

The best time to find agates are when the sun is either rising or setting. Walking into the sunlight on a beach or gravel pathway will illuminate any agate on the surface.

 

Air                                                                                                                                              

The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention and reducing temperature extremes between day and night.  The common name given to the atmospheric gases used in breathing and photosynthesis is air.

Dry air contains roughly nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.  Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor and other chemical compounds. 

Air (Wind) Stones open a path to the spirit realm.  The air element enhances vision, understanding and mental clarity.

 

Amber                                                                                                                                      Fire

Amber is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.  Most valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects.  Amber is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine and as jewelry.  Because it originates as a soft, sticky tree resin, amber sometimes contains animal and plant material as inclusions.

Heating amber will soften it and eventually it will burn, which is why in some Germanic languages the word for amber is a literal translation of burn-stone.  Historically, the Samland coast west of Konigsberg in Prussia was the world's leading source of amber. About 90% of the world's extractable amber is still located in that area.  But amber is globally distributed around wood resin sources.

The Amber Road is a ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.  An important raw material, amber was transported from the North Sea and Baltic Sea coasts overland by way of the Vistula and Dnieper rivers to Italy, Greece, the Black Sea and Egypt thousands of years ago, and long after.
Amber is considered sacred to Freyja and was used as a sacrifice to Gods and Goddesses. It is said that when Freyja could not find her husband Odr, she shed tears that became amber as they hit trees.

Amber occurs in a range of different colors. As well as the usual yellow-orange-brown that is associated with the color "amber", amber itself can range from a whitish color through a pale lemon yellow, to brown and almost black.

Used for protection from harm and success. Helps to clear the mind and bring prosperity. Burn as an incense to transform the ambient negative energy to positive energy.

 

Aventurine                                                                                                                            Earth

Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterized by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect.  The most common color of aventurine is green, but it may also be orange, brown, yellow, blue, or gray.

The majority of green and blue-green aventurine originates in India.  Most material is carved into beads and figurines with only the finer examples fashioned into cabochons, later being set into jewelry.

Aventurine sometimes mistaken for Jade is an all around 'luck' stone, in any color; although the green color of this stone seems to be the most powerful. Aventurine gives the wearer inner equilibrium and it stimulates dreaming. It is said to have a positive effect on the psyche, strengthening an individual's sense of self, being the ideal stone for those who are look for a positive view of life. 

 

Bloodstone                                                                                                                            Fire

The mineral heliotrope, also known as bloodstone, is a form of chalcedony.  The classic bloodstone is green chalcedony with red inclusions of iron oxide or red jasper. Sometimes the inclusions are yellow, in which case the mineral is given the name plasma.

The primary source of the stone is India. It is also found in Brazil, China, Australia and the United States. There is also an outcrop of bloodstone on the Isle Of Rum, in Scotland.

It is a warrior stone for overcoming obstacles, calm ones fears of a real or perceived enemy, helps in maintaining blood harmony and guarding against blood disorders.

 

Bronze                                                                                                                                      Air

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive. It is hard and tough, and it was so significant in antiquity that the Bronze Age was named after the metal.  The discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were better than previously possible. Tools, weapons, armor, and various building materials, like decorative tiles, made of bronze were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors.

It can sustain high heat. Because of the ability to withstand extreme temperatures, bronze is a symbol for judgment. Things you read about in the Temple or Tabernacle that relate to cleansing or judging sin – like the bronze lavers and the altar – are made of bronze.

The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Montelius to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian prehistory, c. 1700–500 BC.  Bronze Age rock carvings may contain some of the earliest depictions of well-known Gods from later Norse mythology.  A common figure in these rock carvings is that of a male figure carrying what appears to be an axe, spear or hammer.

Calcium                                                                                                                                    Earth

Calcium is the chemical element with symbol Ca. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. Calcium is also the fifth-most-abundant dissolved ion in seawater.  As a major material used in mineralization of bone, teeth and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in many animals.  Calcium is not naturally found in its elemental state.  Calcium occurs most commonly in sedimentary rocks in the minerals calcite, dolomite and gypsum.

Calcium was known as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide.  Literature dating back to 975 AD notes that plaster of paris (calcium sulfate), is useful for setting broken bones.  Calcium metal was not available in large scale until the beginning of the 20th century.

Calcium is an important component of a healthy diet and a mineral necessary for life.  Calcium plays an important role in building stronger, denser bones early in life and keeping bones strong and healthy later in life. Dairy products, such as milk and cheese, are a well-known source of calcium.  Approximately 99 percent of the body's calcium is stored in the bones and teeth.

 

Carnelian                                                                                                                                Fire

Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone.  Carnelian are varieties of the silica mineral chalcedony colored by impurities of iron oxide. The color can vary greatly, ranging from pale orange to an intense almost-black coloration. It is most commonly found in Brazil, India, Siberia, and Germany.

Carnelian was recovered from Bronze Age layers on Crete in a form that demonstrated its use in decorative arts.  It was used widely during Roman times to make engraved gems for signet or seal rings for imprinting a seal with wax on correspondence or other important documents.  Hot wax does not stick to carnelian.
In ancient times, carnelian was used to protect the dead on their journey to the afterlife. It is a powerful protection stone that also gives courage, stimulates positive life choices, grounds and anchors you.

 

Copper                                                                                                                                      Fire

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral.  Pure copper is soft and malleable; a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys.

The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus using copper lumps as money.  Production in the Old Copper Complex in Michigan and Wisconsin is dated between 6000 and 3000 BC, used as jewelry and tools.  A 69 pound chunk of natural copper was found near Madison Wisconsin.  Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina).

Due to the fact that copper is such a wonderful physical conductor of electricity and heat, it is also considered the conductor of the spiritualist's belief system. According to myths, copper has the ability to conduct spiritual energy back and forth between individuals, crystals, auras, the mind and the spirit world.

 

Dolomite                                                                                                                                 Air

Dolomite is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate.  Dolomite was first described by the Austrian's as the "stinking stone".  This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria.  

Dolomite is an abundant mineral in Wisconsin.  Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone, a concrete aggregate and a source of magnesium oxide. 

Dolomite assists with emotional balance and calm.  It encourages self-realization.  It fortifies a sense of tradition and helps us acclimate to new communities.  It also promotes moderation and alleviates negative emotions.

 

Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun.  Soil is a natural body consisting of layers that are primarily composed of minerals which differ from their parent materials in their texture, structure, consistency, color, chemical, biological and other characteristics. It is the unconsolidated or loose covering of fine rock particles that covers the surface of the earth.

It is a mixture of mineral and organic materials in the form of solids, gases and liquids.  Soil is commonly referred to as "earth" or "dirt".   On a volume basis a good quality soil is one that has minerals (sand, silt, clay), water, air and organic material, both live and dead. 

Earth stones are used for structure and stability.  Grounding stones resonate with our physical state.  Earth element governs the structure of our lives (home, family, career).

 

Emerald                                                                                                                                  Earth

Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.  Emerald is regarded as the traditional birthstone for May, as well as the traditional gemstone for the astrological signs of Taurus, Gemini and sometimes Cancer.

Emeralds in antiquity were mined in Egypt, India and Austria.   But emeralds are found all over the world in countries such as Brazil, Canada, Germany, Italy, Madagascar, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Spain, United States and Zimbabwe.

Emerald is a stone of great harmony, wisdom and love. The Emerald can be a bridge between two people and vibrates with love.

 

Fire

Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light and various reaction products.  The flame is the visible portion of the fire. If hot enough, the gases may become ionized to produce plasma.  Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire's intensity will be different.

The ability to control fire was a dramatic change in the habits of early humans. Making fire to generate heat and light made it possible for people to cook food, increasing the variety and availability of nutrients. The heat produced would also help people stay warm in cold weather, enabling them to live in cooler climates. Fire also kept nocturnal predators at bay.

Fire in many ancient cultures and myths has been known to purify the land with the flames of destruction, however, it is also capable of the renewal of life through the warmth and comfort of those very same flames. The element of fire shows up in mythological stories all across the world, often in stories related to the sun.

Fire Stones for energy.  Fire stones balance and fortify energy.  The Fire element is associated with the ability to take positive action toward a desired goal.



Flint                                                                                                                                            Fire

Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz.  Flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white, or brown in color and often has a glassy or waxy appearance.  Flint was used in the construction of many buildings, ceramics, jewelry and other tools.

Flint arrowheads and axes turned up by farmer's plows are considered to have fallen from the sky. They are often thought to be thunderbolts and are called "Thunderstones".  Norse warriors saw thunderstones as protection against lightning. 

Flint was used in the manufacture of tools during the Stone Age as it splits into thin, sharp splinters called flakes or blades when struck by another hard object. This process is referred to as knapping.

When struck against steel, a flint edge will produce sparks. The hard flint edge shaves off a particle of the steel that exposes iron which reacts with oxygen from the atmosphere and can ignite the proper tinder. Prior to the wide availability of steel, rocks of iron pyrite would be used along with the flint, in a similar way.

 

Fulgurites                                                                                                                               Fire

Fulgurites are a variety of the mineraloid. They are natural hollow glass tubes formed in quartzose sand, silica or soil by lightning strikes. They are formed when lightning with a temperature of at least 1,800 °C (3,270 °F) instantaneously melts silica on a conductive surface and fuses grains together; the fulgurite tube is the cooled product. This process occurs over a period of around one second and leaves evidence of the lightning path and its dispersion over the surface. They are sometimes referred to as petrified lightning.

They are a reminder from God that, I can create or destroy instantly.  Fulgurites can form different colors depending on the minerals in the sand the lighting strikes.  They can be as fragile as fine china and break up very easily. 
Fulgurites are glassy tubes that form as a result of lightening striking rock or sand. For this reason they are said to resonate with a powerful source of heat and electricity.

Fulgurite is used as a tool for prayer and meditation. It is said to arouse the kundalini energy and help it to rise to inspirational heights - an awakening.  The fulgurite can be used for manifesting and focus in your spiritual and healing work. It also is believed to help clear clogged chakras.

 

Gold                                                                                                                                            Fire

Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au.  It has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water.  Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions, gold has many practical uses in dentistry, electronics and other fields. Gold may symbolize power, strength, wealth, warmth, happiness, love, hope, optimism, intelligence, justice, balance, perfection, summer, harvest and the sun.  

Egyptian hieroglyphs from as early as 2600 BC describe gold, which King Tushratta claimed was "more plentiful than dirt" in Egypt.  In medieval times, gold was often seen as beneficial for the health, in the belief that something so rare and beautiful could not be anything but healthy.  Gold leaf, flake or dust is used on and in some gourmet foods, notably sweets and drinks as decorative ingredient.  Gold can also be made into thread and used in embroidery or electrical wiring.  Because of its historically high value, much of the gold mined throughout history is still in circulation in one form or another.

Symbol of the Sun and the God, as well as purity of spirit and eternity.  Gold is said to be used to bring wealth, happiness and feelings of comfort. It is a mineral of spirituality, magic, understanding, and attunement to nature.  (White Gold is a symbol of the union of Goddess and God in one, the eternal light of the Divines.)

 

Hydrogen                                                                                                                                Air

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H.  Hydrogen is the lightest element and is the most abundant chemical substance, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's baryonic mass.  At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic and highly combustible diatomic gas.

This element is found in great abundance in stars and gas giant planets.  The largest application of hydrogen is for the processing of fossil fuels and in the production of ammonia.  Hydrogen is also commonly used in power stations as a coolant in generators.

 

Lodestone                                                                                                                              Fire

A lodestone, or loadstone, is a naturally magnetized piece of the mineral magnetite. They are naturally-occurring magnets, which can attract pieces of iron. Ancient people first discovered the property of magnetism in lodestone.  Pieces of lodestone, suspended so they could turn, were the first magnetic compasses, and their importance to early navigation is indicated by the name lodestone, which in Middle English means 'course stone' or 'leading stone'.  Magnetite is black or brownish-black with a metallic luster.

The process by which lodestone is created has long been an open question in geology. Only a small amount of the magnetite on Earth is found magnetized as lodestone. Ordinary magnetite is attracted to a magnetic field like iron and steel is, but does not tend to become magnetized itself.  One theory suggests that lodestones are magnetized by the strong magnetic fields surrounding lightning bolts.

Vikings possessed a primitive technology with which to navigate, they may even have had a simple compass - a lodestone, a piece of magnetite (iron oxide) that has been magnetized dangled from a thread or floating in a dish.  The magnetic quality of this stone makes it ideal for attracting good fortune, particularly in love and relationships.

 

Meteorite                                                                                                                                Air

A meteorite is a meteoroid (a solid piece of debris from such sources as asteroids or comets) originating in outer space that survives impact with the Earth's surface.  A meteorite's size can range from small to extremely large.  When a meteoroid enters the atmosphere, frictional, pressure and chemical interactions with the atmospheric gases cause the body to heat up and emit light, thus forming a fireball, also known as a meteor or shooting/falling star.
Meteorites have traditionally been divided into three broad categories: stony meteorites are rocks, mainly composed of silicate minerals; iron meteorites are largely composed of metallic iron-nickel; and, stony-iron meteorites contain large amounts of both metallic and rocky material.

Because they come from celestial realms, meteorites are good for meditation and spiritual pursuits, astral projection, dreams and journeying.

 

Moonstone                                                                                                                             Water

Moonstone is a sodium potassium aluminum silicate.  Moonstone has been used in jewelry for centuries, including ancient civilizations. The Romans admired moonstone, as they believed it was born from solidified rays of the moon.

It is used for all relationships, family, mates and lovers, to keep the existing harmony or to restore it and to attract a new one.  It can be used in workings related to wisdom and intuition and Goddess-focused rituals.

Moonstone is a very personal stone.  It is a reflection of the person who owns it. It does not add or detract, only shows how it is.  This is why the moonstone is said to perceive that which "is".  Moonstone is an excellent stone to use in meditation to understand oneself. Placing it in the moonlight of a moon reaching its fullness, not a full or waning moon, can revitalize it.  This is a particularly good gemstone for women. It is a good stone for young women or teenagers.

Moonstone helps to soothe and balance the emotions. They assist in the master of your emotions by bringing them under control of your will, instead of repressing or expressing them.

 

Opal                                                                                                                                           Water

Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica.  Opal is the national gemstone of Australia, which produces 97% of the world's supply.  Precious opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black.

The opal is said to be many things including the most powerful of healing stones, the stone of hope, the stone of great achievement and even the "stone of the Gods".  Some opals even change color, due to their sensitivity to temperature. 

In the Middle Ages, opal was considered a stone that could provide great luck because it was believed to possess all the virtues of each gemstone whose color was represented in the color spectrum of the opal.  Even as recently as the beginning of the 20th century, it was believed that when a Russian saw an opal among other goods offered for sale, he or she should not buy anything more since the opal was believed to embody the evil eye.  Opal is considered the birthstone for people born in October or under the sign of Scorpio and Libra.

 

Oxygen                                                                                                                                     Air

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O.  By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium and the most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust, making up almost half of the crust's mass.  Oxygen is too chemically reactive to remain a free element in Earth's atmosphere without being continuously replenished by the photosynthetic action of living organisms, which use the energy of sunlight to produce elemental oxygen from water.

Uses of elemental oxygen include the production of steel, plastics and textiles, brazing, welding and cutting of steels and other metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy and life support systems in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving. 

 

Pearl                                                                                                                                          Water

A pearl is a hard object produced within the soft tissue of a living shelled mollusk. Just like the shell of a clam, a pearl is made up of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form, which has been deposited in concentric layers. The ideal pearl is perfectly round and smooth, but many other shapes of pearls occur. The finest quality natural pearls have been highly valued as gemstones and objects of beauty for many centuries, and because of this, the word pearl has become a metaphor for something very rare, fine, admirable, and valuable.
It offers a pure mind and heart. Balances emotions and reduces stress.  Pearls symbolize purity of heart, mind, faith and innocence. They remind us to carry ourselves through life with dignity.

 

Quartz Rose                                                                                                                          Fire

Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar.  There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones. Especially in Europe and the Middle East, varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings.

Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium, iron or manganese, in the massive material.  Rose quartz is more often carved into figures such as people or hearts. Hearts are commonly found because rose quartz is pink and an affordable mineral.

This is the stone of love. It can be used for loving yourself or others. It increases the loving bonds between you and another person in any situation whether it be a simple friendship or your spouse.  By increasing the love in your life it also reduces stress and brings you happiness.

 

Ruby                                                                                                                                          Fire

A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide). The red color is caused mainly by the presence of the element chromium.  The ruby is considered one of the four precious stones, together with the sapphire, the emerald, and the diamond.

Rubies have historically been mined in Thailand, Burma, India, Greenland, Nepal, Afghanistan and in Pakistan.  Rubies have always been held in high esteem in Asian countries. They were used to ornament armor, scabbards and harnesses of noblemen in India and China. Rubies were laid beneath the foundation of buildings to secure good fortune to the structure.  Romans called them bloodstones and used them to stop bleeding. 



Ruby is the symbol of ardent love, its blazing color ranging from red to purple linked it to two Greek Gods: Ares, God of war and Cronos who controlled passion. The ruby was said to inflame lovers and was believed to glow in the dark, it is also the birthstone for July birthdays.

 

Salt Sea                                                                                                                                     Earth

Salt, also known as table salt or rock salt, is a crystalline mineral that is composed primarily of sodium chloride, a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of ionic salts. It is absolutely essential for animal life, but can be harmful to animals and plants in excess. Salt is one of the oldest, most ubiquitous food seasonings and salting is an important method of food preservation. The taste of salt (saltiness) is one of the basic human tastes.

Sea salt is salt produced from the evaporation of seawater. It is used in cooking and cosmetics. It is also called bay salt or solar salt.  Like mineral salt, production of sea salt has been dated to prehistoric times.

The ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.  Some think this to be the origin of Holy Water in the Christian faith.  In Wicca, salt is symbolic of the element Earth. It is also believed to cleanse an area of harmful or negative energies.  A dish of salt and a dish of water are almost always present on an altar.  The salt is mixed with the water to consecrate it, in effect producing holy water.  This mixture is used in a wide variety of rituals and ceremonies.

Most kosher salt is sea salt. Represents earth on the altar. Used for cleansing, purification, grounding, protection magic and ritual. Used with water for aspiring, consecration and casting circles.  Used with garlic and rosemary to banish evil.

 

Sunstone                                                                                                                                 Fire

Sunstone is a plagioclase feldspar, which when viewed from certain directions exhibits a brilliant spangled appearance; this has led to its use as a gemstone.  It has been found in Southern Norway and in some United States localities.  It is the official gemstone of Oregon. 

The optical effect appears to be due to reflections from inclusions of red copper, in the form of minute scales, which are hexagonal, rhombic, or irregular in shape, and are disposed parallel to the principal cleavage-plane. These inclusions give the stone an appearance something like that of aventurine, hence sunstone is known also as "aventurine-feldspar."

Sunstone is linked to luck and good fortune, clears and energies all the chakras. Sunstone instills good nature, heightens intuition and allows the real self to shine through happily. Encourages independence and originality. Increases self-worth and confidence.

 

Thorium                                                                                                                                  Air

Thorium is a naturally occurring radioactive chemical element with the symbol Th.  It was discovered in 1828 by the Norwegian mineralogist Morten Esmark and named after Thor, the Norse God of thunder.  Thorium was once commonly used as the light source in gas mantles and as an alloying material, but these applications have declined due to concerns about its radioactivity.

 

Water

Water is a chemical compound.  Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice and gaseous state (water vapor or steam).  Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface and is vital for all known forms of life. 

Much of the universe's water is produced as a byproduct of star formation.  On 22 July 2011 a report described the discovery of a gigantic cloud of water vapor containing "140 trillion times more water than all of Earth's oceans combined" around a quasar located 12 billion light years from Earth. According to the researchers, the "discovery shows that water has been prevalent in the universe for nearly its entire existence".

Water is one of the elements commonly associated with the qualities of emotion and intuition.  Water is considered a purifier in most religions. Major faiths that incorporate ritual washing (ablution) include Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Shinto, Taoism and Wicca.

Water Stones for emotional balance.  This element affects your ability to express your thoughts and emotional feelings.  It assists in letting go of the past so that you can create your desired future.


Zinc                                                                                                                                             Fire

Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a metallic chemical element; it has the symbol Zn.  The largest mineable amounts are found in Australia, Asia, and the United States. 

Zinc is the fourth most common metal in use, trailing only iron, aluminum and copper.  Zinc is also an essential mineral of biologic health importance.  Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases.

 

Blessed Be!

 




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